Explained - Gaganyaan 2022 Mission

Explained - Gaganyaan 2022 - India's First Human Spaceflight Mission

Introduction :- 

The Gaganyaan programme is an indigenous mission that would take Indian astronauts to space, was announced by the prime minister during his Independence day speech in 2018. The programme will make India the fourth nation in the world to launch a Human Spaceflight Mission. So far, only the USA, Russia and China have launched human spaceflight missions.

What is Gaganyaan ?
  • Gaganyaan is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft that is intended to send 3 astronauts to space for a minimum of seven days by 2022, as part of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme.
  • Isro has developed some critical technologies like re-entry mission capability, crew escape system, crew module configuration, thermal protection system, deceleration and flotation system, sub-systems of life support system required for Mission Gaganyaan.
  • The spacecraft, which is being developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), consists of a service module and a crew module, collectively known as the Orbital Module.
  • The crew module, in which the three astronauts will leave for space, will be made of 3.7-metre diameter and seven-metre height.
  • Isro's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV Mk III, the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability.
  • The spacecraft will be placed in a low earth orbit of 300-400 km.
  • The capsule will rotate around the Earth every 90 minutes, and astronauts will be able to witness sunrise and sunset. The three astronauts will be able to see India from space every 24 hours, while they conduct experiments on micro-gravity.
  • For its return, the capsule will take 36 hours, and will land in the Arabian Sea, just off the coast of Gujarat.

About GSLV MK-III :-
  • GSLV Mk III is designed to carry 4 ton class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The powerful cryogenic stage of GSLV Mk III enables it to place heavy payloads into LEO's of 600 km altitude.
  • The launcher uses two S200 solid rocket boosters to provide the huge amount of thrust required for lift off.

Objectives of the Mission are :-
  1. Enhancement of science and technology levels in the country
  2. A national project involving several institutes, academia and industry
  3. Improvement of industrial growth
  4. Inspiring youth
  5. Development of technology for social benefits
  6. Improving international collaboration
  7. The mission will enable ISRO to achieve higher levels of reliability in launch and satellite technology. It will help in providing employment to 15,000 people and out of them, 861 will be from Isro.

Meeting Between Russia-India :-
Yet in an another recent meeting between visiting director general of Russian space agency Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, Dmitry Rogozin held talks with national security adviser Ajit Doval on Indo-Russian space cooperation.

Glavcosmos, a Roscosmos subsidiary few days back has signed an agreement with ISRO for training Indian astronauts for the Gaganyaan mission, scheduled for launch in 2022. Glavcosmos will also carry out medical examination of candidates and train them for their journey to space.

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